The CORE of Hemorrhoidal Disease

Human beings have suffered from hemorrhoids since they started to walk, and hemorrhoids are described in both Old Testament and Buddhist scriptures. Some known mentions of this affliction are the existence of doctors treating hemorrhoids in Egyptian palaces in 2500 BC, treatment records of both Edwin Smith Papyrus (1700 BC) and Ebers Papyrus (1500 BC), and treatment records in India, China, Greece, and Rome

Hemorrhoidal Disease – History & Pathophysiology

Hemorrhoids, which are characterized by symptomatic expansion and distal displacement of the usual anal cushions, are commonly encountered forms of anorectal disease. They are a significant medical and socio-economic issue affecting millions worldwide.

Piles / Hemorrhoids may come with Various Presentations

Physicians need to be aware of the proper identification and classification of hemorrhoids to reach a correct diagnosis.

Hemorrhoids have a strong link to Chronic Venous Disease(CVD)


Piles Treatment ranges from lifestyle management, dietary modification with fiber, piles medicine  which reduces itching and swelling, stool softeners,  ‘piles pad’  to surgical management based on the disease’s intensity and the case’s demands.

Piles management can be both Medical or Surgical (LASER being the most popular)




‘LASER’ surgery offers several advantages over traditional open surgery techniques in certain cases. Here are some of the general benefits of laser surgery:

1. Precision: Laser surgery allows for precise and controlled incisions, which can be particularly advantageous when operating on delicate or sensitive tissues. The laser can selectively target the affected area while minimizing damage to surrounding healthy tissues.

2. Minimized bleeding: The laser cauterizes blood vessels as it cuts, which helps to minimize bleeding during the procedure. This reduces the need for extensive suturing and can lead to a cleaner surgical field.

3. Reduced risk of infection: The high heat generated by lasers can sterilize the surgical site, reducing the risk of infection compared to traditional open surgery.

4. Quicker recovery: Laser surgery is generally associated with smaller incisions and less tissue trauma compared to open surgery. This can result in reduced pain, swelling, and scarring, as well as faster healing and recovery times for patients.

5. Minimal scarring: Laser incisions are often smaller and more precise, leading to minimal scarring. This is particularly important for cosmetic procedures or surgeries performed in visible areas.

6. Reduced hospital stay: Laser surgery is often performed on an outpatient basis, allowing patients to return home on the same day. This reduces the need for an extended hospital stay and associated costs.

7. Lower risk of complications: Laser surgery can potentially reduce the risk of certain complications, such as wound infection, blood loss, and damage to surrounding tissues.

However, it’s important to note that not all surgical procedures can be performed using lasers, and the suitability of laser surgery depends on the specific condition and the expertise of the surgeon. In some cases, traditional open surgery may still be the preferred option. It’s best to consult with a healthcare professional or surgeon to determine the most appropriate surgical approach for your specific situation.

ANAL FISSURES are tears, or cracks, in your anus. Fissures are sometimes confused with hemorrhoids. These are inflamed blood vessels in, or just outside, the anus. Both fissures and hemorrhoids often result from passing hard stool.


Fissures result from the stretching of your anal mucosa beyond its normal capacity. This often happens when stools are hard due to constipation. Once the tear happens, it leads to repeated injury. The exposed internal sphincter muscle beneath the tear goes into a spasm. This causes severe pain. The spasm also pulls the edges of the fissure apart, making it difficult for your wound to heal. The spasm then leads to further tearing of the mucosa when you have bowel movements. This cycle leads to the development of a chronic anal fissure in approximately 40% of patients.


You may have these symptoms with an anal fissure:

Pain during and after a bowel movement
Visible tear or cut in the area
Bright red bleeding during or after a bowel movement

Risk factors

Certain factors raise the risk for anal fissures, including:

Constipation with straining to pass hard stool
Eating a low-fiber diet
Intense diarrhea
Recent weight loss surgery, because it leads to frequent diarrhea
Vaginal childbirth
Minor trauma, especially trauma caused by high-level mountain biking
Any inflammatory condition of the anal area.
Anal fissures may also result from inflammatory bowel disease, surgery, or other medical treatments that affect bowel movements or the anus.


Your healthcare provider will make a diagnosis based on:

Your personal health history

Your description of the symptoms

Rectal exam

Because other conditions can cause symptoms similar to an anal fissure, your healthcare provider might also order tests to find out whether there is blood in your stool.


An acute anal fissure typically heals within 6 weeks with conservative treatment. Some disappear when constipation is treated. Anal fissures that last for 6 weeks or more are called chronic anal fissures. These fail conservative treatment and need a more aggressive, surgical approach.

Other treatments include:

Changing your diet to increase fiber and water, steps that will help regulate your bowel movements and reduce both diarrhea and constipation

Taking warm baths (SITZ BATH) for up to 20 minutes a day

Taking stool softeners, such as fiber supplements, as needed

Using topical medicines, such as nitrates or calcium blockers.

LASER treatment helps in healing by cauterizing fissure which promotes healing.

Having surgery, such as a lateral internal sphincterotomy. During the surgery, the pressure inside the anus is released. This allows more blood to flow through the area to heal and protect tissues.



Complications seen with anal fissures include:

Pain and discomfort

Reduced quality of life

Difficulty with bowel movements. Many people even avoid going to the bathroom because of the pain and discomfort it causes

Possible recurrence even after treatment


Uncontrolled bowel movements and gas

Living with anal fissures

If you have an anal fissure, take these precautions to avoid making it worse and avoid recurrences:

Take all medicines as prescribed.

Get the recommended amount of fiber in your diet. Avoid constipation or large or hard bowel movements.

Drink enough water to stay well hydrated.

Maintain a routine bowel habit. Ask your healthcare provider about what this should be for you.

Avoid spicy foods while you have an anal fissure, because they may make symptoms worse.


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